Foot – Hindfoot and Ankle
Ankle and Hindfoot
As is the case with the forefoot, the bones of the hindfoot are arranged to stablize the foot with maximum range of motion. The bones of the hindfoot are connected by joints, ligaments, and muscle tendons that originate at the calf – Achilles tendon, tibialis posterior tendon, peroneal tendons, tibialis anterior tendon, and others. Common hindfoot problems include flat foot, ankle sprain, problems of the Achilles tendon such as tendonitis, or injuries of the cartilage. Orthotics and physiotherapy are highly effective conservative treatments for these conditions. If necessary, surgical repair can be performed through open surgery or minimally invasive arthroscopy.