Tendon Diseases and Malposition
Achilles Tendon Rupture or Tendonitis:
The Achilles Tendon can either completely or partially rupture. A partial Achilles tendon rupture, also known as Tendonitis or Tendinosis, usually happens gradually. Complete rupture of the Achilles tendon is treated surgically by tendon suture, sometimes with tendon transfer. In some patients, tendonitis of the Achilles tendon can be successfully treated with conservative therapy and physiotherapy.
Achilles Tendon Inflammation:
If the tissue around the Achilles tendon is disturbed by swelling, the area can become painful. This condition is called Paratendinitis and can be treated conservatively with different methods such as bracing, special bandages, anti-inflammatory medication, and physical therapy.
Achilles Tendon Insertion:
The Achilles tendon inserts into the calcaneus, or heel bone, and can become painful if tendon calcification forms, if partial rupture of the Achilles tendon occurs, or if there is a prominent calcaneus (Haglund disease). Achilles Tendon Insertion may be treated conservatively with rest, physical therapy, or shoe insertions, though, surgery may be required to remove the prominent calcaneus and the calcification and restabilize the Achilles tendon. Sometimes an additional tendon transfer is needed to reinforce the damaged Achilles tendon.
Heel Spur (Plantar Fasciitis)
Pain in the heel can be caused by plantar fasciitis. The plantar fascia is the tendon-like structure extending from the heel (calcaneus) to the toe joints on the plantar side of the foot. In some cases, calcification of the plantar fascia at its insertion point to the calcaneus occurs and is observable on an X-ray. Treatment consists mainly of conservative measures (insoles, physiotherapy) and rarely requires surgery. If surgery becomes necessary, endoscopic minimally invasive surgery is possible with promising results.
A flat foot is caused by a progressive collapse of the medial longitudinal arch of the foot. Flat feet can be accompanied by pain and sometimes swollen ankles. A flat foot most often becomes symptomatic in adults and rarely causes foot pain in children or teenagers. Depending on the degree of the flat foot and foot pain, the therapy may begin with conservative measures such as insoles and physiotherapy. Surgical treatment of flat foot includes realignment procedures such as foot bone osteotomies and tendon transfers or in more advanced stages arthrodesis of selected joints.
Conditions and Treatments
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